Omar Khayyam (/kaɪˈjɑːm, kaɪˈjæm/; Persian: عمر خیّام [oˈmæɾ xæjˈjɒːm]; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet. He was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Persia, and was contemporary with the rule of Seljuks around the same time the First Crusade unfolded.
As a mathematician, he is most notable for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations, where he provided geometric solutions by the intersection of conics. Khayyam also contributed to the understanding of the parallel axiom. :284 As an astronomer, he designed the Jalali calendar, a solar calendar with a very precise 33-year intercalation cycle :659 that provided the basis for the Persian calendar that is still in use after a millennium since his works.
There is a tradition of attributing poetry to Omar Khayyam, written in the form of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt رباعیات). This poetry became widely known to the English-reading world in a translation by Edward FitzGerald (Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, 1859), which enjoyed great success in the Orientalism of the fin de siècle.